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Vinicio Coletti

Matter simply dark


The dark matter problem is one of the well known astrophisical problems, yet to be solved.
Simply put, if we observe the galaxies internal motion, the interaction among galaxies, the gravitational lenses they somethimes form, etc., there is a huge amount of matter missing. All these phenomena would be well explained if galaxies contained much more matter than what we actually observe.
The Messier 51 galaxy What many scientists propose is the existence of the so called "dark matter" - yet to be observed - formed by exotic elementary particles, interacting with gravitational force but not with the electromagnetic force. Since light is electromagnetic force, these particles and the bodies they possibily form are totally invisible, while attracting other bodies through gravitation.
To explain what we observe, dark matter mass ought to be more than 80% of the mass of the whole universe.
Elementary particles researchers are actively hunting for dark matter and perhaps a day we will hear some breaking news from CERN, stating that a new exotic particle has been discovered.

My proposal

Now, first of all keep in mind that I am not a scientist, so all I say may well be considered naive and unlikely, but a simple and strange idea sprung into my mind some years ago and I now decided to put it in written form.
To know what I am proposing, let's see first how a stellar system is formed, like the one having the Sun at its center. A huge cloud of gas and powder concentrates slowly, because each particle is attracted by the others for the gravitational force.
During this process, many attraction centers are formed and the bigger is clearly at the center of the cloud. At the end the collapsing mass at the center would become so big that matter will warm up progessively, reaching eventually a temperature of millions of degrees Kelvin, where nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms begins: a new star is born!
The minor densities would form planets, minor planets, satellites, asteroids and comets, forming this way a new stellar system, like our own Solar System.
The solar system Quite often more than one density is massive enough to give birth to a star and the system will thus host two or more stars. For example the closest system of Alpha Centauri is known to have three stars and this situation is quite common.
All obervations of matter in a galaxy happen through light, including infrared, ultraviolet, x-ray and radio waves, which are all electromagnetic energy. We see only what is lit, in a way or in another. Also, it seems to me that all dark matter theories think that all we see (through light) is all existing matter in barionic form (barions are 3 quarks particles, like protons and neutrons that form the nucleus of all ordinary atoms).
All this implies that the process producing a star (or more stars) has a 100% efficiency, except for the big clouds of gas and powder that we see because they are lit by a close star. Practically every time a mass concentrates, at least a star would be produced.
A dark system? Well, my simple naive idea is that the process that creates stars is much less effective, producing in most cases a system with NO stars at its center. These no-stellar systems, or dark systems if you like, whould be in fact much more frequent that stellar systems, because having enough mass to give birth to a star is not so easy.
If frequent enough, they could host all "dark matter" needed to explain the motion of galaxies.
Dark systems would be very difficult to spot, because there is no light emitted. If very cold, they could be very difficult to see even at IR or radio waves. In fact they could be very close to the 3 K of the cosmic background radiation.
So "dark matter" could be dark in a very trivial sense. Just imagine a Jupiter-like system alone in space, separated from any stars: here is a dark system!
However, sometimes the temperature of the central planet (or dark star if you like), could be a bit higher and the same applies to the surrounding planets. For example, we know that Jupiter's satellite Europa is warm enough to host an underground water ocean and this temperature is not caused by the Sun, but by the internal friction due to the gravitational force of Jupiter; the same could happen to some planets of the dark systems.
Then, Jupiter itself emits some energy outside and the same could happen to some dark stars. There is thus some chances that standard observations, expecially in the far infrared or radio waves, could spot a day a dark system.
If these systems do exist (very probable) and if they host more than 80% of the mass of a standard galaxy (possible, but just speculative), we would have solved the dark matter problems without any need of exotic matter.
And, if really dark systems are so frequent, we could even expect that the closer one is much closer to the solar system than the Alpha Centauri stellar system. He could be out there, just waiting to be discovered.
When next space telescopes will be launched, aiming at alien planets in the far infrared region, we could observe, as a side effect, the first dark systems. In case they are even darker, we should imagine new observation methods, explicitely aimed at looking for them.

Published by Vinicio Coletti, Rome, Italy, on July 23, 2018